Client-Side Scripting- Top Languages to Learn

Client side scripting languages - Top 10 to learn in 2023

Scripting languages are a type of computer language that may be used to communicate with other software, such as a web browser, server, or standalone programme. Scripting languages, such as JavaScript, PHP, Ruby, Python, and others, are among today's most popular coding languages.

It's no surprise that scripting languages are frequently utilised in web development since they make coding easier and faster.

HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is used to build web pages. Web pages have traditionally been rather static, consisting primarily of text and graphics. Modern web design, on the other hand, makes use of more interactive material.

This can range from basic changes in the colour of a button when a user drags their mouse over it to sophisticated interactive online games. Dynamic web pages are defined as online pages with interactive information.

Scripting may be used to add dynamic content to web pages. A script is a series of instructions that are carried out under specific circumstances. Validating a user's entries, for example, is a good practise when they fill out an online form. This is when scripting enters the picture. Small programmes called web scripts are run when a user interacts with a web page.

Scripting is commonly utilised in web development. Web development encompasses all aspects of creating an Internet-based website, including online design, web content creation, network security setting, and programming. Scripting helps you to transform a static HTML page into one that is more dynamic. It allows visitors to engage with a website rather than simply seeing its pages.

Web scripts can execute on the client side (also known as the front-end) or the server side (commonly known as the back-end). The web browser used to view a web page is referred to as the client. The computer server that hosts the website is referred to as the server.

Learn server side programming languages from here

What is client side scripting language?

Client-side programming, such as JavaScript, can be integrated in a client's browser's page. When operating a web application, this script will allow the client's browser to relieve some of the load on your web server. Client-side scripting enables the construction of quicker and more responsive online applications by executing source code on the client's browser rather than the web server.

Client-side scripting refers to a type of online programming that is run on the client side, rather than on the server, by the user's web browser (on the web server).

This sort of computer programming is an essential element of the Dynamic HTML (DHTML) idea, since it allows web pages to be written, or to have distinct and changing content based on user input, environmental circumstances (such as time of day), or other variables.

Client-side scripts are frequently embedded within an HTML or XHTML page (thus the term "embedded script"), but they can also be found in a separate file that is referenced by the document (or documents) that utilise them (hence the term "external script"). The relevant files are delivered to the user's computer by the web server (or servers) on which they reside in response to a request.

The script is run by the user's web browser, which subsequently displays the page, including any visible script output. In addition, client-side scripts may include instructions for the browser to execute in response to certain user activities (e.g., clicking a button). These instructions are frequently obeyed without the need for further contact with the server. To reduce communication burden, server load, and response time, balancing the execution of client and server scripts is utilised.

Users may be able to examine the script's source code by examining the file that includes it. Many web authors learn how to develop client-side scripts by looking at the source code for scripts written by others.

Client-side scripting language and Server-side Scripting language

When a user requests a document, the web server executes server-side scripts written in languages including PHP, ASP.NET, Java, Adobe ColdFusion, Perl, Ruby, Go, Python, and server-side JavaScript. They generate output in a web browser-friendly format (typically HTML), which is then delivered to the user's machine.

The user will not be able to access the script's source code (unless the author makes it available separately) and may not even be aware that a script has been run. Client-side scripts may be included in documents generated by server-side scripts.

Server-side scripts necessitate the installation of their language's interpreter on the server, and they provide the same results independent of the client's browser, operating system, or other system specifics.

Client-side scripts don't require any additional server software, which makes them popular among writers who don't have administrative access to their servers; however, they do require that the user's web browser knows the scripting language in which they're written. As a result, writing scripts in a language that is not supported by common web browsers is impracticable. 

Key differences between server side scripting and client side scripting languages

Use It's utilised in backend applications when the source code isn't visible or concealed from the client (browser). It is utilised at the front end, which is visible to users through their browser.
Script Running A web server executes the server-side scripting script that generates the page that must be delivered to the browser. The script for client-side scripting that is already on the user's computer is run by the browser.
Occurrence When a user's browser sends a server request, this occurs. After that, dynamic pages are produced based on a number of factors. It occurs when the browser has all of the codes and then changes the page based on the user's input.
Execution Because the server-side programming is done on a remote computer, the response time is slower than the client-side response time. When opposed to server side scripting, the client server scripting procedure is performed on a local computer, resulting in a faster response.
Operation A server can run a server-side script, but it cannot run client-side scripts. After receiving the page supplied by the server, the browser can conduct client-side scripting.
Connection to the database It facilitates the connection to databases already existing on the web server. It doesn't connect to any of the web server's databases.
Suitability It's ideal for any application that necessitates the loading of dynamic data. It's ideal for any situation that necessitates user engagement.
Languages Ruby on Rails, PHP, ColdFusion, Python, ASP, Perl, and more languages are used in server programming. Javascript, HTML, CSS, VB script, and other languages are frequently used for client-side scripting.
Access To Files It has full access to all files on the web server. It does not have access to all of the files on the web server.
Security Because server side scripts are generally concealed from the client end, it is more secure than client side scripting. Because the scripts are generally not concealed from the client, it is less secure.


Advantages of client side scripting languages

  • Allows for more interactivity
  • Can perform actions quickly without going to the server
  • May be easier to use for those whose browsers don’t support the script
  • Available from many free resources such as & 

client side scripting languages

Disadvantages of client side scripting languages

  • If the user’s browser is out of date, the website will not display properly.
  • More quality assurance testing is required because different browsers support script differently 
  • Not secure because anyone can look at the code in the page source
  • Some browsers will disable the active content and tell the user they may be harmful

Client side scripting languages uses

  1. Creates interactive websites.
  2. Make things move around.
  3. Play around with temporary storage.
  4. Serves as a link between the user and the server.
  5. Requests are sent to the server.
  6. Data retrieval from the server.
  7. Allows client-server programmes to be accessed remotely.

Top 10 Client-side Scripting Languages


HTML is a markup language, not a programming language. Nonetheless, it is the most basic language for client-side web programming, often known as front-end development.

HyperText Markup Language is abbreviated as HTML. The term "hypertext" refers to a page that contains hyperlinks. Markup language uses tags to describe the layout and structure of a document. It is a programming language that is used to create the layout and structure of a web page.

HTML was established for the first time in 1991. It has continued to improve since then, with HTML5 being the most recent version.

HTML tags are the building blocks of markup. The tags instruct the browser on how to display the text they contain. The layout of web pages is controlled by a vast number of HTML tags. The HTML elements p>.../p>, for example, indicate that this is a paragraph, and that the content wrapped in this tag should begin slightly indented on a new line.

HTML tags may also be enhanced by adding attributes to improve their appearance and functionality.

HTML is a platform-independent, easy-to-learn language.


Extensible HTML is the abbreviation for "extensible HTML." It's a rigorous version of HTML that spells out the standards and best practises for writing HTML code. The concept behind XHTML is that web developers all around the globe use a standardised technique and tags for creating web pages so that they may be seen on any web browser on any smart device.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an acronym for Cascading Style Sheets. They enable the web page's developer to add aesthetics. A style element in a web page provides all of the specifics of the web page's presentation, including its colour, format, border styles, image styles, font size, font styles, margins, padding, and borders, among other things.

CSS was created by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996. It has continued to change since then. Cascading style sheets are so named because they have three levels of styling for a document. Cascading allows lower-level style sheets to overrule higher-level style sheets. The following are the three levels:

External Style Sheet:

When we want the entire website to have the same style format, we utilise them. It eliminates the need to style each web page independently. We create a single CSS file and reference it on all pages. This style sheet contributes to the overall site's uniformity and tone.

Internal Style Sheet:

When we want a single web page to have a certain style, we utilise them. On the web page we wish to add, the CSS code is placed in the style tag. This takes precedence over the external style sheet.

Inline Style:

This is only used in a web page for a single HTML element. As a result, it's encased in a style property within that HTML tag. This will take precedence over the other two styles. Consistency is harmed by this approach. As a result, it's best to use it sparingly.

top 10 client side scripting languages


Before 1995, JavaScript was known as LiveScript and was created by Netscape. Later, under the name JavaScript, it evolved as a joint effort between Netscape and Sun. The most widely used programming language is JavaScript. According to studies, JavaScript is used on around 97 % of websites nowadays.

Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Opera, Safari, and other major web browsers are all supported.

Using form components such as buttons, menus, and text boxes, JavaScript makes it easy to make a web page interactive. When an event may be triggered by a mouse movement or a keyboard, it's easier to write event handling in JavaScript.

The JavaScript programming language is not the same as the Java programming language. Because JavaScript is not an object-oriented programming language, it lacks the idea of classes.

Many prominent frameworks and libraries are available for JavaScript at the moment. jQuery, React, and Angular are the most popular. Facebook developed React, and Google developed Angular.


Facebook first utilised React to improve their web development project, however it was subsequently transformed into an open-source initiative. Leading firms all around the globe have utilised it to create native apps. Whatsapp, Facebook, and Yahoo! are examples of common React apps.

According to SimilarTech, React.js is used in some manner on approximately 1.38 million websites around the world. The top three nations that use React.Js are the United States, the United Kingdom, and China. The popularity of React.Js can be due to its ability to improve user experience.


Angular is gaining popularity among developers all around the world, especially after its 2016 version, which included improvements to the feed layout functionality. Autodesk, Microsoft, and a slew of other IT behemoths have embraced Angular for development. Developers may use Angular to create dynamic websites (SPAS) and other interactive apps with valuable features.

click here to know more: React.js vs Angular


Vue has grown in popularity as a dynamic frontend development language since its release in 2014, because of features like active data binding. It's ideal for creating both mobile and desktop applications.

Vue development is heavily influenced by React and Angular, two of the most popular frameworks today. Vue is simple to learn and deploy for app development.


VBScript is based on Microsoft's Visual Basic, which was released in 1996. It is a scripting language that is lightweight, quick, and simple to learn. VBScript is a scripting language, not an object-oriented programming language. It is, nevertheless, an object-oriented language, similar to JavaScript.

VBScript is a scripting language that may be used to create sophisticated administrative programmes and utilities. In terms of functionality, VBScript is identical to JavaScript. However, Microsoft browsers are the only ones that use it. Other browsers do not have built-in VBScript functionality.

Furthermore, event-driven computation and forms are not supported by VBScript. As a result of the compatibility concerns, it is no longer widely used for web development.


It's an abbreviation for Asynchronous Javascript and XML. We employ this mix of web technologies on the client side to develop web apps with asynchronous I/O.

It allows the web app to transmit and receive data in the background without interfering with the application's usual front-end functionality. JSON is now utilised instead of XML, despite the fact that it is still referred to as AJAX.


It is a javascript library, not a programming language, but it is an essential element of client-side scripting. The creators say that jquery behaves consistently across all browsers.

This is the most significant benefit of this technique. Jquery is a javascript toolkit that makes coding easier and allows for faster web development.

The Need for Client-Side Scripting for a web application

It is believed that as online apps become more powerful and complex, they will operate and act similarly to a Windows application. A web application's core design is that the majority of the source code and assemblies are stored and processed on a web server.

A web server's primary responsibility is to receive HTTP requests and return the required resource in an HTTP response. Between the client's browser and the web server, there is never a constant live connection. HTML will always be used to create web pages.

The process of submitting an ASP.NET page to the server for processing is known as PostBack. The HTML document is delivered to the web server every time a PostBack occurs. The server renders the modified HTML to the client after loading the page and processing events. The whole HTML is updated on PostBack.

This may be highly time consuming for the client in large and complicated web apps that maintain a lot of View information. For a web server with limited resources such as memory and bandwidth, this will be a major issue.

The view state of a web application is generally included in the HTML page. "In a word, Microsoft® ASP.NET view state is the mechanism used by an ASP.NET Web page to persist changes to the state of a Web Form between postbacks," according to Microsoft.

The status of objects can be saved in a hidden field on the page using the view state.The view state is sent from the server to the client and back, and it is not saved on the server or any other external source. View state is used to keep the status of server-side objects between postbacks, and it may get very big for large apps and pages.

Client-side scripting and server-side scripting work together to create a seamless experience. Both scripting approaches, however, are significantly different, with client-side scripting focusing on making the web application or website interface more appealing and useful. Server-side scripting, on the other hand, focuses on data access techniques, error handling, and quick processing, among other things.


1. What is a popular language for writing client side scripts?

The initial server-side programming language was Perl. Python and Ruby were also utilised for CGI coding. PHP came up a little later and was equally essential.

2. Which languages are used for client side programming?

Any language used by a programmer to assure interactivity between a user and an application is known as a client-side programming language. They are mostly utilised in the creation and management of user interfaces, as well as to enhance user experience. Javascript, HTML, CSS, VBscript, and Ajax are examples of these languages.

3. What is the most popular server-side scripting language?

PHP is by far the most used server-side scripting language

4. What is the best scripting language to learn?

  1. JavaScript/ECMAScript.
  2. PHP.
  3. Python.
  4. Ruby.
  5. Groovy.
  6. Perl.
  7. Lua.
  8. Bash.

5. Should I learn Java or Python?

For the reasons for which they are used, Java and Python are the finest languages. Python is more powerful than Java if you desire a simple syntax and readability. There are several advantages to using Python rather than Java.

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